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Muack as a mocky patching library

Muack as a mocky patching library

Consider you're using a broken library and you need an immediate fix without
waiting for upstream to merge your patch, and release a new version.

You could fix it more elegantly by subclassing the original class, or try to
include or extend a module to make the original class work correctly. But
sometimes we just cannot do this because of the implementation. They might
not be extensible at all. Consider if there's a method contains 1,000
lines... There's no way to change it in the middle of the method other than
touching the lines directly, unless we have some line based AOP tools...
which is not really practical.

In this case, we could fork it and maintain everything by ourselves, and
merge from upstream occasionally. However we might only want to do this as
the last resort since this could cost a lot.

Alternatively, we can copy the original code, and put it somewhere, and
load it after the original code was loaded, so we have the patched and
correct code running. This is also called monkey patching, patching like a
monkey. Generally this is a bad idea, but sometimes we can only do this to
workaround some broken libraries. For example, some libraries might not be
maintained, or the authors refused to fix this due to other reasonable or
unreasonable reason.

The most notable drawback of monkey patching is that, we're copying a lot of
codes which could be changed upstream, and we might not be aware of that,
and update our monkey patch accordingly. This could cause some incompatible

That means, the fewer copied codes, the better. Muack could actually help
in this case. I called this mocky patching. The advantage of using this
technique is that, we have `peek_args` and `peek_return` which we could
modify the arguments or return values in runtime, without changing any
implementation of a particular method.

Here's a real world example with rails_admin. The problem in rails_admin is
that, it assumes every associated records should have already been saved,
thus having an id, and there's also a particular show page for it.

However, in our application, we could have associated records not yet saved
in the database. rails_admin would try to retrieve routes for those unsaved
records, and rails would raise RoutingError because rails_admin is passing
no id for a show path.

The idea of this fix is simple. Just don't try to get the show page for
records which are not yet saved, i.e. records without an id. However this
is actually extremely hard to fix in rails_admin without monkey patching!

I'll skip all those details and my rants. In the end, I fixed this by
trying to peek the arguments for a particular method, and if and only if
the passed records are not yet saved in the database, we fake the arguments.
Otherwise, we just bypass and fallback to the original implementation.

Here's the code:

  peek_args do |*args|
    custom_key, bindings = args
    if bindings && bindings[:object] && bindings[:object].id.nil?
      [nil, {}] # There's no show page for unsaved records
      args # Bypass arguments

If we don't do mocky patching but monkey patching, we'll end up with
copying the entire method for RailsAdmin::Config::Actions.find, which then,
we'll be responsible for updating this method if some of the original
implementation changed.

Note that in mocky patching, we should always use stub and never call
`Muack.verify` or `Muack.reset`, or that would defeat the purpose of
mocky patching.

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